Voltage Regulator:

      A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.



        Electromechanical regulators are called voltage stabilizers, have also been used to regulate the voltage on AC power distribution lines. These regulators operate by using a servomechanism to select the appropriate tap on an auto transformer with multiple taps(servo type), or by moving the wiper on a continuously variable auto transformer. If the output voltage is not in the acceptable range, the servomechanism switches the tap, changing the turns ratio of the transformer, to move the secondary voltage into the acceptable region. The controls provide a dead band wherein the controller will not act, preventing the controller from constantly adjusting the voltage as it varies by an acceptably small amount.

       The Voltage regulators or stabilizers are used and commercially sold mostly in third world countries like India,Bangladesh,Pakistan,Afghanistan etc. due to high voltage fluctuations.Voltage regulators normally commercially produced normally operate on a range of voltage i.e. 150V-240V , 90V-280V etc. Servo Stabilizers are also manufactured and used widely in-spite of the fact that they are obsolete and use back dated technology.



       Early automobile generators and alternators had a mechanical voltage regulator using one, two, or three relays and various resistors to stabilize the generator's output at slightly more than 6 or 12v, independent of the engine's rpm or the varying load on the vehicle's electrical system. Essentially, the relay(s) employed pulse width modulation to regulate the output of the generator, controlling the field current reaching the generator(or alternator) and in this way controlling the output voltage produced. The regulators used for DC generators(but not alternators) also disconnect the generator when it was not producing electricity, thereby preventing the battery from discharging back into the generator and attempting to run it as a motor. The rectifier diodes in an alternator automatically perform this function so that a specific relay is not required; this appreciably simplified the regulator design.


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